Grain Mills by Wondermill, The World's Best Grain Mills

Ingredients Glossary

A

Ascorbic acid. Vitamin C is added to some commercially milled flours to help mature the flour and to improve its bread making qualities. Add approximately 250 mg for each 2 cups of flour. I have found granulated vitamin C at the health food store. The strength of vitamin C I use is 2000 mg/tsp (information found on side of container). I want 250 mg so I use the following equation to determine how much to use per 2 cups of flour: 250/2000 = .125 or 1/8 tsp. Testing was done using 1/8 tsp. of vitamin C granules in the small recipe, 1/8+ in the medium and 1/4 tsp. in the large. Vitamin C tablets may be crushed, or ground with a mortar and pestle.

Allspice. Made from the berry of a West Indian tree of the myrtle family, allspice’s flavor seems to combine the taste of several spices. It is commonly used to flavor pies and other baked goods.

Almonds. Slivered, toasted almonds add a nice crunch to breads but often do not have enough taste to add much in the way of flavor. I frequently suggest adding a dash of almond extract if the bread requires a pronounced almond flavor.

Amaranth. Attributed to the Aztec Indians, amaranth is extremely high in protein, vitamins, minerals and calcium. You can find amaranth grain, cereals, etc., in your health food store and may find some in large grocery stores. The grains themselves may be cooked for a hot cereal, sprouted for salads or breads, toasted as nuts or even popped like popcorn. If you pop it, keep in mind that it may burn easily without oil, but that you shouldn’t use too much oil, either.

Amaretto. Derived mainly from apricot pits, amaretto is a syrupy sweet liqueur with a predominant flavor of bitter almonds. It is enhanced with the essences of vanilla, vanillin, and other flavorings. There are quite a few producers of amaretto today, but Italian producers dominate the market.

Anise. Clusters of tiny flowers and licorice-flavored seeds characterize the anise plant, which is native to the Mediterranean region. While the root of the anise is an herb that is used in some dishes, the seeds axe more often used to flavor cakes, cookies, and liqueurs.

Asiago cheese. A wonderfully versatile Italian cheese, straw-colored Asiago is made from cow’s milk. It has a nutty, sharp flavor and a semi hard texture. Asiago is wonderful grated over pastas and delicious added to bread.

B

Barley. Barley flour will only be found in health food stores. It has a very low gluten content and must be used in conjunction with a high gluten flour. Barley has a mild nutty flavor. Generally, barley flour is a low percentage of all flour used in bread recipes.

Barley malt. Heavy syrup used in both bread baking and beer making, barley malt gives bread a rich, grainy flavor. Pure barley malt tastes similar to blackstrap molasses and the two may be used interchangeably. It is wonderful when used with seeds such as caraway, anise or fennel. The malt itself is made by soaking the whole barley grains, sprouting them, drying and grinding them. Available in a health food or beer making store.

Basil. A sweet herb growing originally in India and tropical areas of Africa, basil was imported centuries ago into Mediterranean Europe, where it became a staple herb. Basil has a pleasant, pungent aroma. Its flavor enhances robust foods such as beans, pastas, and stews, yet it is delicate enough to include in savory loaves of bread.

Black beans. Also called turtle beans, these shiny, kidney-shaped, black-skinned legumes Ingredients are a staple in their native Cuba and in South and Central America. Today, black beans are also grown in the southern United States. They have a prominent flavor and a slightly mealy texture. Black beans are generally found in dried form. They can also be found canned in salt water If using canned beans, be sure to first rinse them well.

Bouquet garni. This mélange of dried herbs includes basil, oregano, thyme, marjoram,
savory, rosemary, dill, tarragon, and sage. It can be used to season a wide variety of foods and breads. Boursalt cheese. Imported from France, this triple-crèmes cheese has a delicate garlicky flavor and a rich, velvety consistency.

Boursin cheese. Boursin is perhaps the best known of the triple crèmes cheeses. Imported from France, Boursin is a rich, soft, uncured cheese that has been infused with garlic; it has a delicate flavor and velvety consistency.

Bran. Bran is the coarse, dry outer layer of grains such as wheat, rye, and oats. Bran adds texture, fiber, and nutritional richness to breads and cereals. It also imparts a sweet, nutty flavor For full nutritional value, be sure to buy unprocessed bran.

Beer. Works well in bread. Just replace some or all of the liquid in your recipe with beer 1 to1. Remember, if you don’t want to drink it you won’t want to eat it.

Bread flour. In contrast to pastry flour, which comes from soft wheat, bread flour comes from hard wheat and has a high protein and gluten content. Although it can be white or whole wheat, the bread flour called for in the recipes in this book is white bread flour because it is the most readily available. Supermarkets stock both varieties of white flour–pastry and bread–but their whole wheat flour tends to have low gluten content. Many natural foods stores stock both pastry and bread whole wheat flour. Although acceptable breads are made with other flours, the best breads are made with high-gluten bread flour. Gluten gives dough its elasticity and the strength it needs to expand and rise. It also makes bread crisp and chewy. Gluten can be added to any flour.

Brie cheese. The best known of the cheeses imported from France, Brie is made from the whole milk of cows. It is the color of heavy cream and is encased in a reddish brown crust. With its superlative flavor and aggressive bouquet, a perfectly ripe Brie oozes slightly at room temperature.

Brown rice. Available in short-, medium-, and long-grain varieties, this tender and moist rice has a nutty flavor and texture. Because brown rice retains its bran coat and germ, it is slower to tenderize and takes longer to cook than do other rices. Brown rice is filled with protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin E, and most of the B vitamins. When baking bread, the medium-grain variety is the best type to use.

Brown rice flour. This fine-textured flour is made from ground short- or medium-grain
brown rice. It adds nutritional value to breads.

Buckwheat flour. While it has many of the characteristics of grains, buckwheat is actually a fruit with a high-quality protein balance, a rich concentration of iron, and a good supply of B vitamins and calcium. It is ideal for people who cannot tolerate wheat products. Buckwheat is ground into a finely milled flour. It can be found in natural foods stores in light or dark varieties. Dark buckwheat flour is grayish with tiny black specks and contains about 17 percent of the hull. As buckwheat is not a grain, buckwheat flour does not contain gluten and must be used in conjunction with other flours in baking.

Bulghur. See Cracked wheat.

Buttermilk. Buttermilk, which was once a by-product of churned butter, is cultured from low-fat or nonfat milk. Although it does not have the thick consistency it once had, buttermilk retains its tangy tartness and adds a distinct flavor and light texture to breads.

C

Camembert cheese. Bearing the name of the village in Normandy where it is reputed to have first been made, Camerabert is one of Europe’s best-known French cheeses. Made from whole cow’s milk, Camembert has a creamy yellow flesh that is encased in a speckled, floury, moldy-looking crust. A perfectly ripe Camembert is six weeks old and possesses a fruity, slightly tangy fragrance. It should be served at room temperature, when it is silky, spreadable, and aromatic.

Canola oil. A mild-flavored vegetable oil, canola is a good all-purpose oil. It is the lowest in polyunsaturated fat of any oil on the market. Following close behind in quality are safflower and sunflower oils. All three oils can be used interchangeably in the recipes in this book.

Caraway seeds. These seeds are a very popular European spice. They add flavor and crunch to many bread varieties. They are especially popular in rye breads.

Cardamom. This member of the ginger family is native to India and is supplied encased in its pod. Remove the sweet, strong-flavored seeds from the pod and crush them before using them. Cardamom has a distinctive flavor but is commonly substituted for cinnamon. When buying whole cardamom, keep in mind that the palest pods contain the most flavorful seeds. Cardamom is also available ground, but ground cardamom loses its potency soon after the jar is opened.

Carob powder. This rich, sweet, dark brown powder comes from the dried pods of the honey locust tree. Because it contains less fat than chocolate and is not bitter (thus requiring less sweetener than chocolate does), it is often used as a healthful alternative. It can be substituted in equal amounts for cocoa powder in any recipe.

Celery seeds. These tiny, olive-brown seeds are obtained from wild celery plants. Their flavor is almost identical to, though more intense than, that of celery.

Cheddar cheese. Wisconsin, New York, and Vermont produce the best American Cheddars, which range from very mild to very sharp. New York, once the primary Cheddar producer, prides itself on dry, crumbly Cheddar with a sharp, full flavor that is substantial enough to be noticed when baked in breads. Sharp Cheddar is recommended in whole-grain baked goods, so that the flavor is not overpowered.

Cheshire cheese. Probably the oldest cheese made in Britain, blue veined Cheshire ranges in color from pale yellow to warm apricot. It has a rich, mellow flavor and a moist, crumbly texture. Sharp Cheddar can be substituted for Cheshire in any recipe.

Chevre cheese. Also referred to simply as goat cheese, chevre has a buttery consistency and a unique bouquet. When young, the cheese is soft and has a gentle aroma. With age, the texture becomes drier and the flavor more dominant.

Chick peas. These round, tan-colored beans come from the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. They are called chick peas because each bean has a small peak that resembles a chicken’s beak. They are also known as garbanzo beans or ceci beans. Chick peas possess a nutty, earthy flavor and are very versatile. Not available fresh, they are found dry or, more commonly, canned in salt water. Be sure to rinse the canned beans well before using them.

Chilies. The little peppers called chilies come in many varieties, but all contribute color, flavor, piquancy, and a degree of heat to food. They can range from mild to very hot, from sweet to quite acidic, and from fresh to dried. While there are over a hundred varieties of chilies, only a few are readily available in supermarkets. The fresh green or red chilies have a crisp, grassy taste, while the dried ones are musky and a bit fruity. Jalapeno chilies are found fresh, canned, or jarred. Fresh, these chilies should be firm and unblemished with unbroken skin. If using canned chilies, transfer any unused peppers to a jar with an airtight cover and store in the refrigerator; they will keep for several months. Small, narrow, hot dried red chilies called pepperoncini rossi are available whole or crumbled and packed in jars. For maximum potency, these chilies should be used within three months of opening the jar.

Chili powder. This is a blend of ground chili peppers, cumin, oregano, garlic, and salt. Depending on whether it is mild or hot, it will add either a subtle zip or a real jolt to breads and other dishes. Mexican grocery stores sell chile de arbol, which has a great deal more flavor than the chili powders sold in most supermarkets.

Chocolate. Chocolate is made from the beans of the cacao tree, an evergreen tree of the cola family. This tree is native to the tropical Amazon forests. Chocolate is a mixture of roasted cocoa, cocoa butter, and very fine sugar Unsweetened (or bitter) chocolate is available in squares and is the natural rich chocolate ground from the cocoa beans. It has a full-bodied flavor and is ideal for baking and cooking. Semisweet chocolate, available in bits and morsels, is chocolate that has been processed with sugar and viscose to make it syrupy when melted. Cocoa comes in powdered form and is made from roasted cocoa beans. It is unsweetened, and its flavor is bitter.

Cinnamon. Cinnamon is native to the East Indies and Southeast Asia. This sweet aromatic spice is made from the dried inner bark of certain trees (Cinnamomum zeylanicum and C. cassia). Cinnamon comes in many forms, from powder to chips to rolled sticks. As cinnamon loses its aromatic intensity after about three months, it should be purchased in small amounts. Ground cinnamon must be used with caution when making breads, as it tends to counter the rising ability of yeast.

Coffee. Coffee is makes a great addition to bread. Also, don’t forget the flavored varieties. Just replace some other liquid in the recipe with coffee 1 to 1.

Cocoa. See Chocolate.

Coriander. Also called cilantro or Chinese parsley, coriander is a pink-flowered native of southern Europe. In its fresh form, it resembles flat-leaf (Italian) parsley. Minty-fresh, aromatic, and utterly captivating, this strong herb lends a noticeable flavor to breads. Coriander seeds are dried and ground; they are used in Middle Eastern-style dishes.

Cornmeal. Cornmeal comes in three colors: yellow, white, and blue. Look for stone-ground meals, which contain the flavorful germ, lost in many of the supermarket varieties. Yellow cornmeal retains more carotene than the white and is generally more flavorful, but for the most part, the two are interchangeable.

Cottage cheese. Made from skim milk, with cream possibly added, cottage cheese’s most noticeable characteristic is its texture. Its tender curds create a soft, slightly lumpy consistency, yet it is firm enough to hold its shape. Creamy white with a pleasant, slightly tangy flavor, cottage cheese has a delicate aroma.

Cracked wheat. Consisting of whole wheat kernels that have been cracked or cut into pieces, this coarse grain adds fiber and substance to breads, cereals, and casseroles. Cracked wheat is raw and needs at least 15 minutes of cooking before it can be used. Bulgur, which is cracked wheat that has been steamed, needs just a soaking before it is used.

Cream cheese. Generally found in rectangular white blocks, cream cheese is made from a mixture of cream and milk. Today, most have a minimum fat content of 33 percent. This silky, smooth cheese with its refined, slightly acidic flavor is often infused with gum arabic, a stabilizer. Search out the brands without this additive. They have a lighter, more natural texture, although their storage life is somewhat shorter.

Cumin. A member of the parsley family, cumin hafts from Egypt, where it grows as a small plant bearing umbels of small rose or white flowers and produces fruit and cumin seeds. Most often used in its ground form, cumin’s sharp, strong, and earthy taste is used to add range and depth to many Middle Eastern-style dishes. Cumin is often paired with coriander to produce breads with decidedly Middle Eastern undertones. Cumin seeds look very much like caraway seeds but have a flavor of their own. Cumin adds a prominent chili flavor to breads, but because of its strong nature, it must be used with caution.

Currants. Currants are the small dried berries of a spineless shrub that is native to the Mediterranean region. While fresh currants are available in July, dried ones are preferred for bread baking.

Curry. A mixture of many spices, including turmeric, ground cumin, and cardamom, curry adds a sweet, distinctive flavor and yellow color to the breads and dishes in which it is used.

D

Dates. Dates come packaged in a number of different forms. Pitted and unpitted dates from the Middle East and California are sold in plastic containers and have not been artificially sweetened. Chopped dates that have been rolled in powdered sugar are much sweeter. For the recipes in this book, I suggest using the non artificially sweetened variety.

Date sugar. This is ground from dehydrated dates and is not actually a sugar It is high in fiber and rich in vitamins, minerals, and iron. Date sugar can be used in baking when a textured sweetener is required.

Dill. Originally discovered in southern Europe, dill has since been transplanted to more northern climates. Another member of the very large parsley clan, the dill plant has bitter seeds and skinny, aromatic leaves. This licorice-tasting herb can often be found in the supermarket, especially during the summer months. Its leaves and seeds are also available dried and should be stored in jars. The dried leaves are an especially nice addition to delicate breads, while the seeds can be crushed and added to hearty whole-grain breads.

Diastatic malt. See Malt.

Dried fruits. These sometimes cause problems. Keep in mind that some machines have difficulty baking loaves which have too many dried or fresh fruits. For this reason, I generally recommend adding between 1/4 to 1/3 cup for small size loaf, 1/3 to 1/2 cup for medium and 1/2 to 2/3 cup for a large loaf, experiment to determine which is best for you. Also, if you have problems with the fruits clumping try dusting them with flour and then add them. Also, if your machine has add ingredient setting our beep, add the fruit at that time. For breads I recommend apple, apricots, blueberries, cherries, cranberries, dried fruit mix, raisins, etc.

Dried Whey. Dried Whey is the “essence” of buttermilk without the milk solids. It helps the yeast work quickly and vigorously, giving maximum rise in the time frame allotted by bread machines. It also softens the texture of the bread. Like with any acid type addition it also helps keep the bread fresher longer and it deters mold and bacterial growth.

E

Egg Protein. This is specifically from the yolk, has a leavening effect and adds to the
structure of the bread. Add egg to liquid when measuring.

Egg substitute. Egg Substitute is a great replacement for eggs. Follow the directions on the carton for measuring egg equivalents.

Emmenthaler. This is one of Switzerland’s two great cheeses for melting (Gruyere is the other). Emmenthaler is a true Swiss cheese, with a characteristically full, nutty flavor and a delicate goldenrod color. Riddled with holes (or eyes), this cheese grates well and melts into characteristic long strings. When buying this exceptional cheese, be sure the rind is stamped in red with the word “Switzerland” to prove its authenticity.

Endosperm. The endosperm is the starchy part of the grain and is all that remains after refining. This refined, endosperm-rich product is what is used to produce white flour, the flour most commonly used in commercially baked goods such as bread, rolls, muffins, and cakes. Although the endosperm accounts for about 83 percent of the kernel weight and the greatest share of the grain’s protein, it lacks fiber, zinc, vitamin B6, magnesium, potassium, vitamin E, and chromium. These naturally occurring nutrients all play important roles in maintaining health, including the proper digestion and utilization of wheat or any other grain. Chromium, for example, assists insulin in taking sugar from the blood to use for energy. Without this natural balance, refined flour acts much like refined sugar in the body, disrupting blood sugar levels while providing little long-term energy.

F

Farmer cheese. Once sold only in bulk, this part-skim cow’s milk cheese now can be found packaged in smaller quantities. Its flavor is milky clean, full, and slightly sour; its texture is similar to lightly crumbled cream cheese. Avoid farmer cheese that has a firm slicing texture.

Fresh fruit. Adding fresh fruit is a good addition to your bread. Just be careful though. Fresh fruit has much more water and will affect the consistency of your dough. You may need to add more flour. Make sure to add it in the last few minutes of the last kneading cycle.

Fennel seeds. With a bright, pungent flavor that hints of licorice, fennel seeds add crunch and character to whole-grain breads.

Feta cheese. Originally made by shepherds, this sheep’s milk cheese is soft, salty, and strong flavored. It is white and crumbly yet firm enough to hold its shape when cooked. Essential in the cuisines of Greece and the Balkans, feta comes packed in brine. To retard the aging process, the brine should be replaced with a mixture of equal parts water and milk that has been boiled and then cooled.

Fruit juice. You can use any type of fruit juice for all or some of the liquid in a recipe. How about pineapple bread with orange marmalade.

G

Garbanzo beans. See Chick peas.

Ground beef. See Hamburger.

Garlic. This fragrant bulb, available in many forms, adds a gentle aroma and pronounced taste to breads. Fresh garlic should be plump and firm with the papery skin firmly attached. It should not be refrigerated but rather stored in a cool, dry place with good ventilation. Chopped or minced fresh garlic that has been preserved in oil and sealed in jars is also available; this garlic has a clean, crisp taste and is convenient to use. The least desirable form of garlic is the powdered type.

Gelatin. Gelatin helps with bread texture and moisture. It is also of nutritional value and is good for the hair and finger nails. Make sure to use unflavored gelatin.

Ginger. Stored in glass jars, the powdered form of ginger root is readily available in supermarkets. Ginger adds a pleasant aroma and faint, spicy taste to breads when combined with other spices. Ginger is a yeast booster it gives it a “quick-start”, and keeps it working. Because of its astringent properties it also helps keep the bread fresher longer and it deters mold and bacterial growth. It is best to used powdered ginger in your bread.

Gluten flour. As the gluten content of many whole-grain flours is low, it is often necessary to supplement the flour by adding wheat gluten to the dough. Gluten is available in natural foods stores and can add height, lightness, and a small amount of protein to your breads. Gluten flour is usually a 50-50 combination of Vital Wheat Gluten and White Flour. Use 2 Tablespoons per cup of whole grain or all-purpose flour (See also Vital Wheat Gluten.)

Graham flour. This whole wheat flour has had the inner portion of its kernels finely ground. The bran layers are then returned to the flour, giving it a coarse, flaky texture. When purchasing graham flour, be sure it still contains the germ. It is excellent for rolls and breads.

Gruyere cheese. Gruyere is one of Switzerland’s great cheeses for melting. This cow’s milk cheese has brown, wrinkled skin covering deep ivory-colored flesh. Gruyere is a deep, nutty, and full-flavored cheese with a hint of sweetness.

H

Havarti cheese. Made from cow’s milk, this exciting, creamy cheese has small irregular holes dotting its landscape. Mild yet tangy, rindless Havarti comes either plain or flavored with dill, chives, caraway, or other herbs or spices.

Hamburger. Add some cooked and crumbled hamburger to your bread. You could even add some shredded cheese and make cheeseburger bread.

Honey. Cooking with honey has become so commonplace that the many colors and flavors of this sweetener are often overlooked. Honey ranges in color from ash white to dark amber, with flavors from mild to quite pronounced. When sugar is used in a bread, it can be identified only by its sweetness. Honey on the other hand adds flavor as well as subtle color. Honey, molasses, and maple syrup are the preferred sweeteners in whole-grain baking.

I

J

Jarlsberg cheese. A hard-pressed cow’s milk cheese from Norway, Jarlsberg has many of the characteristics of Gruyere and Emmenthaler. It has a straw-colored interior that is dotted with large holes, and it has a firm, smooth, and elastic texture.

K

Kasha. see Buckwheat flour.

Kamut. This ancient variety of Egyptian wheat which has been revived and planted in Montana, is very high in nutritional content but low in gluten. Use up to 1/3 cup to displace an equal amount out of every cup of flour.

L

Lecithin. Lecithin is a food supplement which is obtained from the oil in egg yolks or soy beans. It improves moisture and assists in the expansion and elasticity of the bread dough. Add between 1 to 1-1/2 teaspoon of lecithin granules per cup of flour. Lecithin can also be gotten in liquid form but it is very sticky (worse than honey) and I don’t think it is worth the hassle. The Granules are easier to deal with. If you can only get the liquid then use than. Oil your measuring spoon first so it slides right out.

Lemon zest. See Zest.

Lime zest. See Zest.

Liqueurs, diluted. You can use liqueurs in your bread, but don’t add too much. The yeast produces alcohol as well and we wouldn’t want to get the yeast tipsy. It may not do its job.

M

Malt. There are two types of malt. There is diastatic and non-diastatic. Non-diastatic is simply added as a sweetener like in chocolate malts. Generally, you don’t use
Non-diastatic malt in bread. Diastatic malt helps breaks down the starch in dough. This provides extra sugar for feeding the yeast. Flour mills typically put in 1/10% malted barley flour (barley malt is cheaper than wheat malt) to provide diastase (enzyme), which converts the starch in damaged starch granules to sugars that can be used by the yeast over an extended ferment. The use of too much diastatic malt can result in slack, sticky dough, and will not improve yeast action. Malt is not made from cooked grain, but rather sprouted grain in this case barley. I use about 1 teaspoon per cup of flour. This is also what gives bagels and pretzels that special taste. If you are adventurous you can make your own, sprout 1 cup of barley berries (make sure they are whole barley and not hulled) by covering them with water in a jar for 12 or so hours, dump out the water & rinse with clean water, and place the jar in a dark, warm, place. Rinse the berries every day with clean water and return to their place. In 2-3 days they will begin to sprout. When the sprout is as long as the berries themselves, dump them out on paper towels, dry them off, and set them on a cookie sheet in the sun for a day or so to dry out, then put the cookie sheet in a 100 degree oven for one to two hours. Do not let the temp get above 130F or the enzymes will be destroyed. Then grind the dried malted berries into flour, and use it in your favorite recipe. You can also do this with wheat berries.

Mace. This spice is made from the dried, waxy covering that partly encloses the kernel of the nutmeg. Mace’s flavor is similar to nutmeg and is used in whole or ground form.

Maple syrup. A simple carbohydrate, maple syrup is the boiled-down sap of the sugar maple tree. Not quite as sweet as honey, maple syrup has a more distinctive flavor and about 15 percent less calories.

Milk (dry). Instant nonfat dry milk is skim milk in a granular form. It is top-quality milk with only the fat and water removed. Used in small quantities when baking bread, dry milk adds to the bread’s longevity and softens its texture.

Milk (liquid). Skim, low-fat, or whole milk can be used interchangeably in any recipe. Milk adds a significant amount of protein and minerals to breads; it also creates a subtle difference in texture. Be sure to scald your milk before using it, so that the milk does not deactivate the yeast’s gluten properties. To scald milk, simply heat it just to the boiling point (a skin will form).

Millet. This is also a very small grain which may be used as either flour or the grain itself. Millet blends well with fruits (such as apple) and is slightly sweet itself. Use up to 1/4 cup to displace an equal amount out of every cup of flour.

Molasses. The cooked liquid that remains after the crystallization of granulated sugar is called molasses, and it is a common ingredient in baked products. Molasses lends a noticeable flavor and color to baked goods, the intensity of which depend on the type of molasses used. Blackstrap molasses is the strongest in taste and has the most intense color. It also contains the most iron, calcium, potassium, and B vitamins. Because of its very noticeable color, however, blackstrap molasses should be used only in very dark breads. The light-colored molasses varieties are better suited for most bread.

Mint. This almost indestructible plant has the ability to grow under deplorable conditions. Since it is so easily grown, there is little excuse for using dried mint, which has a decidedly bitter taste. Fresh mint’s subtle flavor has a Mediterranean flair.

Mozzarella cheese. At one time, mozzarella was made solely from buffalo’s milk, and in some parts of southern Italy it still is. Today, the majority of mozzarella, whether fresh or prepackaged, is made from cow’s milk. Served as a table cheese or in salads, versatile mozzarella is often used as a topping on pizza and breads. Fresh mozzarella contains too much water to be used on pizza without it making it soggy, for pizza always used a good prepackaged mozzarella.

Muenster cheese. A rich, smooth cheese with a creamy white interior and orange rind,
Muenster is fairly mild in flavor and aroma when young. With age, this cheese turns a buttercup yellow and takes on a more distinctive air.

N

Nuts. These can be ground or chopped nuts. They can be added in amounts ranging from 1/4 to 1/3 cup for a small loaf, 1/3 to ½ cup for medium and ½ to 2/3 cup for large loaves. Good bread nuts include, almonds, brazil, cashew, hazelnuts, macadamia, mixed, peanuts, sunflower or pumpkin seeds, walnuts, pecans, and pistachios.

Non-diastatic malt. See Malt.

O

Oat-blend flour. A blend of wheat and oat flours, this flour retains most of the nutrients present in whole oats, as the bran and germ have not been removed. Oat-blend flour adds significant amounts of iron, calcium, and phosphorus to breads.

Oat bran. Finely ground from whole oat groats, oat bran is used as a nutty, flavorful cereal. Included in baked products, it adds fiber.

Oats. Oats come in many varieties–instant, quick-cooking, and rolled (the long-cooking variety). Rolled oats, which are whole oats with the husks removed, are the type most commonly used in baking. First steamed and then flattened between rollers, rolled oats are used in cereals, cakes, cookies, and breads. Toasting the flakes enhances their flavor. Rolled oats can also be placed in a blender or food processor and ground to a finer consistency before being incorporated in a recipe.

Oat flour. Milled or ground rolled oats. Try making your own in your food processor or blender; blend 1 cup at a time at high speed until a fine flour forms — about 1 minute. It is also available for purchase in health food stores or by mail order. I love this flour in breads and chocolate chip cookies, as it adds a wonderful nutty taste.

Orange zest. See Zest.

Oregano. The Mediterranean influence comes through loud and clear in the lusty, potent impact of this popular herb. Oregano adds a very noticeable Italian flavor to all types of breads.

P

Peanut butter. Ground from whole peanuts, this familiar spread is high in protein.
Unfortunately it is also high in fat. I suggest using natural peanut butter, without added sugar, oil, or salt.

Pectin. Pectin adds moistness to the bread. This is the same pectin used to make jams and jellies. It comes in liquid and granular form. The granules are easier to work with and store.

Pepperoni. Add chopped pepperoni to your bread for a pizza taste and a fun loaf of bread.

Pont L’Eveque cheese. This cheese comes in small plump squares, each with a scented, cross-hatched surface. Inside, this exceptional cheese is a pale creamy yellow and laced with tiny holes. A soft, melting texture and an amazingly deep, vibrant flavor make this one of France’s finest cheeses.

Popcorn flour. A powder-soft flour ground from popped kernels of corn, popcorn flour is something you must make yourself. Pop unflavored, unsalted popcorn, then grind the cooled popped kernels in a blender or food processor until fine. This flour can be stored the same way you store all your flours. Approximately 3-1/2 ounces of unpopped corn yield 4 cups of unpacked flour.

Poppy seeds. Originally from Holland, these tiny, dark seeds of the poppy flower are quite fragrant. Poppy seeds are used more for their crunch than their flavor and are found in and on top of many breads and rolls.

Port du Salut cheese. Also called Port Salut, this cheese is mild flavored and has a creamy texture. Its flavor, however smooth, is robust, which sets it apart from other bland cheeses. Its mellowness blends well with sweets, fruits, and hearty dark breads.

Potato flour. This may be used to give bread a moist crumb with a dry crust. Use 2 tbs. or 1/4 cup to displace an equal amount out of every cup of flour used.

Potato water. You can use the water that potatoes were cooked in, in your bread. Just
replace some or all of the liquid in your recipe with potato water 1 to 1.

Pasta water. You can use the water that pasta was cooked in, in your bread. Just replace some or all of the liquid in your recipe with pasta water 1 to 1.

Pumpernickel flour. See Rye Meal.

Q

Quinoa (KEEN-wah). Recently available in the United States, this grain is quickly catching on even though it is somewhat expensive. Extremely high in protein, (anywhere from 14 to 19 percent), quinoa is also an excellent source of calcium, and has a high lysine content, as well as vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. Quinoa grains may be cooked the same as rice. The flour is expensive but worth it in quinoa bread, which has a slightly nutty taste.

R

Raisins. In the United States, California produces the finest raisins, in gold and black varieties. Raisins add a delicious dimension to breads and rolls.

Rice grains. Rice is no stranger to most of our dinner tables in the form of boiled grains. The most common grains found in grocery stores have had their hulls removed, hence most of their nutritional value. To use try adding 1/4 cups of cooked rice in place of 1/4 cup of the flour the recipe calls for.

Rice flour. A low gluten flour, this must be used in conjunction with a white flour such as bread flour. You may find this in the Oriental section of your grocery store or in a health food store.

Rice bran. This has recently been discovered to have the same qualities as oat bran in lowering blood cholesterol levels. As with all bran, it is the outer layer of the kernel and has high nutritional value.

Rice syrup. A sweetener containing no fructose or sucrose. Syrup may be found in a health food store.

Ricotta cheese. This whey cheese comes fresh in wet white curds that are similar to, though somewhat finer than, those of cottage cheese. Ricotta has a mild, slightly sweet flavor and no aroma.

Rolled oats. The grinding of oats leaves the bran and germ intact and, therefore, the nutrients. Reasonably high in protein, oats are also high in vitamins B and E. Rolled oats are the most familiar form of oats to most of us. The oat grains are steamed, rolled into flakes and dried.

Rolled wheat flakes. Similar to rolled oats, wheat flakes are available as a cereal at a health food store. They add a unique flavor and texture to bread.

Roquefort cheese. This internationally famous French blue cheese is made from the milk of sheep. It has a firm yet slightly crumbly texture and a powdery white flesh that is laced with characteristic green-blue veins. It is difficult to describe the incredible flavor of true Roquefort. Even though it is crumbly, the cheese is even and smooth, and its taste is mellow with a sophisticated piquancy.

Rosemary. Rosemary plants grow wild in the Mediterranean and produce clusters of small, light blue flowers and leaves that are used in many dishes. This extremely pungent herb is most often found dried in its whole or crumbled leaf form. When rosemary is in prime condition, it imparts a fresh, woodsy flavor and odor. It is perfect in Italian flat breads.

Rye berry. The berry or kernel of rye, as like with wheat berries, they may be sprouted and used in its entirety in bread for the highest nutritional content.

Rye flour. Ground from whole rye berries, rye flour is sold in white-, medium-, and dark-colored varieties. The medium-colored flour is the one most commonly used to make delicious breads, rolls, and crackers. However, because of rye flour’s low gluten content, it must be combined with other flours in order for the bread to rise properly.

Rye meal. Often called pumpernickel flour, rye meal is actually coarsely ground whole rye flour. This “flour” has the consistency of cornmeal and is usually combined with rye flour and whole wheat flour to make pumpernickel and other dark breads.

S

Safflower oil. See Canola Oil.

Saffron. Orange-colored saffron threads are the dried stigmas from a plant of the iris family. Although saffron is quite expensive, a little bit goes a long way in flavoring rice dishes, sauces, soups, and breads. Saffron adds a deep yellow color to any dish, as well as to fingers and wooden spoons, so be careful.

Sausage. Add some cooked ground or chopped sausage to your bread for a wonderful taste treat. How about adding a good breakfast sausage? Serve toasted with poached eggs.

Sage. Long known as a medicinal herb, sage is also used to flavor soups, cheeses, and baked goods. Sage has an interesting, woodsy flavor and aroma. It is often used in combination with other herbs and spices.

Salt. A growth-inhibitor of the yeast, salt provides a counter-balance for the sugar. It also brings out the flavor of the bread. I like kosher salt as it is more mild in flavor and easier to sprinkle on food with your fingers. Sea salt in my opinion isn’t worth the extra expense but it works too.

Semolina. Semolina is refined durum wheat flour. Because the bran and germ have been sifted out, semolina is very light in color and texture, resulting in airy breads and pastas.

Sesame seeds. The flat, oval seeds of an East Indian plant, sesame seeds add flavor and crunch to baked products. They have a rich, warm flavor, which can be enhanced by toasting.

Soup, canned. You can add canned soup to your bread for unique and tasty bread. Try a vegetable soup. Be careful of soups with pasta. Soups with rice should work fine. I like using cheese soup or a cream of potato in bread.

Sour cream. This may be used in place of yogurt cheese or cream cheese. It can also
replace (1 to 1) some of the liquid in a recipe. But unlike the yogurt cheese it adds a lot of fat and calories to your bread.

Soybeans. Very inexpensive sources of high protein, soybeans are used in many different ways and foods including tofu and soymilk.

Soy flakes. These large flakes are made from whole soybeans that are toasted for about 30 seconds, and then flaked in a roller mill. Soy flakes have all the qualities of whole soybeans, with the advantage of being easier and faster to cook. They add nutrition and texture to baked products.

Soy flour. This high-protein flour is made from raw soybeans that have been hulled, cracked, and finely ground. As soy flour has a distinctive flavor, it usually makes up less than 25 percent of the total flour content in a bread recipe. Soy flour adds valuable vitamins, calcium, and iron to breads.

Soy margarine. Pure soy margarine contains soybean oil, soybeans, salt, vegetable lecithin, and water. It can be used interchangeably with canola, safflower, and sunflower oil.

Spelt. This is another ancient grain which has recently been revived. It is possible to make a loaf of bread using no other flour other than spelt flour but it is very difficult to time in bread machines. I would recommend using no more than 1/3 cup to displace an equal amount out of every cup of flour.

Swiss cheese. The universal success of Switzerland’s Emmenthaler has inspired virtually every country that makes cheese to create its own domestic variety. Many types are uninspiring and not worth mentioning some such as the Swiss cheese that is produced in Wisconsin, are worthy of consideration. The major problem with most Swiss cheeses is a lack of sufficient aging. A good Swiss should be white or a slightly glossy cream color It should have a mild, nutty sweet taste and should be fiddled with shiny holes. If not purchasing Emmenthaler, take care to select a Swiss that has been aged at least 60 days. (See also Emmenthaler; Gruyere cheese; Jarlsberg cheese.)

Sun-dried tomatoes. Adding a unique quality to many Italian-style breads and pasta dishes, sun-dried tomatoes are experiencing a well-deserved popularity. Their unusual, intense flavor is far removed from that of a fresh tomato. The best sun-dried tomatoes, which are packed in olive oil, come from Italy. Since domestic farmers are beginning to produce them, dry sun-dried tomatoes can be found in the produce section of many supermarkets. To reconstitute dry sun-dried tomatoes, simply place them in a pan with water to cover Bring the water to a boil, then reduce the heat and simmer the tomatoes until they are soft (about 30 minutes). Allow to cool, then transfer the tomatoes along with the cooking water to a clean airtight jar. Add 2 tablespoons of olive oil for every 3 ounces of dried tomatoes. Cover tightly and place in the refrigerator, where they will keep for up to 6 months.

T

Taco seasoning. A combination of herbs and spices including oregano and chili powder, this spicy seasoning is available in individual packages and adds a Mexican flavor to breads.

Tahini. Made from hulled sesame seeds, this paste has a consistency thinner than that of peanut butter. It can be found in natural foods stores and in the international-foods section of most supermarkets. Once you open a can or jar of tahini, keep it refrigerated.

Tea. Tea like coffee makes a great addition to your bread. Just replace some or all of the liquid in your recipe with tea 1 to 1. Don’t forget to try some of the flavored teas.

Thyme. During the summer months in France, hillsides are fragrant with an abundance of thyme. An essential ingredient in French cuisine, thyme has crossed the ocean to add a sharp, warm, and pungent touch to American dishes as well. A pinch of thyme, particularly when paired with other herbs, makes a flavorful addition to a loaf of bread.

Triticale. This is a hybrid of wheat and rye. The flour may be difficult to obtain. Use it for up to 50% of total flour.

Tofu. Tofu is one of the main ingredients in several “dough enhancer” products available for purchase. Tofu drink mixes are also used as enhancers in bread baking. In the products with which I have experimented, lecithin is an ingredient. Dried tofu powder alone seemed to have little impact upon the rising of the loaf. Tofu is bean curd made from soy beans. The enhancer or drink mix products seem to work well.

U

V

Vital Wheat Gluten. This is 100% wheat protein and is used to give grain breads or breads made with all-purpose flour the extra protein to make a nice loaf of bread. Unlike the Gluten Flour there are no other additives. Use 1 tablespoon per cup of grain or all-purpose flour. See also Gluten Flour.

VegeBase. This organic vegetable blend is made of soybeans, carrots, peas, onion, spinach, celery, parsnips, kale, parsley, vegetable oil, vegetable proteins, and herbal seasonings. It comes in powdered form and, when mixed with boiling water, makes a wonderful broth. It is available in natural foods stores.

Vegetable juice. I would be very cautious using vegetable juice other than say tomato or V8 Juice. Basically, if you don’t like to drink it, you won’t like it in your bread.

Vegetable water. You can use the water that vegetables were cooked in, in your bread. Just replace some or all of the liquid in your recipe with the vegetable water 1 to 1.

W

Walnuts. A delicious crunchy addition to many baked goods, the walnut’s pleasant bitterness benefits from toasting before the nut is added to bread dough.

Water. Try to use good quality water. I use bottled water. This is to make sure that there is nothing that is going to cause my yeast to go lame. Water makes bread with a crusty crust.

Wheat berry. Very high in protein and low in calories, this is the original form of the wheat grain before any grinding or milling. The berries must be soaked, preferably overnight, prior to use. They are the most common sprouted berry used for “sprout” bread. The berries may be bought in health food stores or ordered by mail. Keep in a dry, cool place. They also lost forever and a day.

Wheat germ. The most nutritious part of the wheat berry, wheat germ can be eaten raw or toasted. It is often added to baked goods to provide fiber and a crunchy texture. Be sure to refrigerate an opened jar of wheat germ, as the germ contains oils that quickly turn rancid at room temperature.

Whey. Whey is one of the by products of making yogurt cheese. It is a clear liquid. You can use whey in your bread. Simply replace 1/4 cup of liquid with 1/4 cup of whey. You can also, use whey in bean dishes. There are two kinds of whey a sweet whey usually found in powder form (if it just says whey on the package assume it is sweet whey) and there is acid whey which is harder to find in powder form but is the best one to use in bread. If you can’t find it you can make it by draining plain yogurt that doesn’t contain gelatin in a coffee filter lined strainer overnight in the refrigerator. Place a container under the strainer to collect the acid whey liquid (See also Yogurt cheese.)

Wine. Wine can be added to your bread. Just replace some or all of the liquid in your recipe with wine 1 to 1. Remember, if you don’t like to drink it, you won’t want to eat it.

Whipping cream. This is also known as heavy cream and may be substituted with evaporated skim milk if watching calories. This makes a very rich bread.

Whole wheat flour. Unlike white flour, which is made from only the starchy endosperm
portion of the wheat kernel, whole wheat flour is made from the whole kernel, including the germ and bran. Whole wheat flour therefore has more nutrients, more fiber, and a more complex flavor than white flour. There are two types of whole wheat flour: pastry flour, which comes from low-gluten soft wheat, and bread flour, which comes from hard wheat and has the strength and elasticity that benefit bread. The whole wheat flour commonly available in supermarkets is pastry flour, which has a low gluten content. When I make bread, I use whole wheat bread flour, and that is what is meant when a recipe in this book calls for whole wheat flour. You can substitute whole wheat pastry flour, but the resulting bread will be heavier and denser.

X

Y

Yeast. Yeast is a simple one-celled plant that is the leavening agent for cakes and breads. When added to certain ingredients under proper conditions, yeast grows rapidly, forming the gas that makes breads and cakes light and airy. One package of yeast equals approximately 2-1/2 teaspoons or a scant tablespoon. If you purchase yeast in bulk (which is the best deal), store it in an airtight container in the refrigerator or freezer (freezer being the best option).

Currently there are several types of yeasts on the market. Cake or fresh yeast which is the oldest variety isn’t really suitable for bread machines. It doesn’t handle the harsh kneading given by the bread machine. Active Dry Yeast came after cake/fresh yeast and is a large granule yeast that needs to be proofed in warm sugared water before using. Instant Active Dry and Bread Machine Yeast is the same thing. Technically this is just a finer granuled active dry yeast that because of the smaller granules doesn’t require proofing. However, my testing has shown to me that instant active dry yeast is up to twice as fast as active dry which makes me wonder if it really is the same strain of yeast. Rapid Rise and Quick Rise yeast are the fastest yeasts on the market. These are designed to be used with bread machine rapid cycles or cycles that produce a finished loaf of bread in half the normal time. The best yeast to use is the Instant Active Dry (Bread Machine Yeast). It is best to buy your yeast in 1 pound packages. Store the yeast in the freezer in an airtight container and use right from the freezer there is no need to warm it first. When buying yeast look for yeast that is as far away from expiration as possible, I look for yeast that won’t expire for at least 6 to 8 months. Yeast stored in the freezer will last years beyond expiration this is why it is best to store it in the freezer.

Yogurt. This nutritious food is made by introducing harmless bacteria into milk and allowing it to feed on the milk sugars. This creates a slight acidity that makes yogurt a thick and tangy food, high in nutritional value. It adds a light, airy texture to breads. Also, try adding some of the flavor yogurt to your bread like blueberry yogurt with dried blueberries.

Yogurt cheese. This is a thick, creamy, and tart mixture that resembles cream cheese. You can use it like you would cream cheese or sour cream. If you don’t want the tart taste (which reminds me of sourdough) you can add 1/2 teaspoon of baking soda to the rest of the breads ingredients. Yogurt cheese is easy to make. To make yogurt cheese you will need a container of nonfat plain yogurt, which has no gelatin in it. Place the yogurt in a coffee filter lined strainer. Place a bowl under the strainer. Put the entire thing in the refrigerator for 24 hours. When this is done, you will have a thick creamy mixture. You will also have a clear liquid in the bowl; this clear liquid is acid whey. It can also be used in your bread as well as bean dishes (See also Whey.)

Z

Zest. The zest from oranges and lemons is actually the coarse outer rind of the fruit. (Only the colored part of the rind, not the bitter inner white portion, contains the flavor.) Zest should be grated and used whenever the distinct flavor of lemon or orange is desired. Dried zest, which is found in the spice section of most supermarkets, should be kept on hand for emergencies. Freshly grated zest has no equal. When lemons and oranges are in season, buy a large quantity and make your own zest. Cut the fruits in half and squeeze out the fresh juice, reserving it for another use. With a sharp knife or potato peeler, remove the outer rind from the fruit and coarsely grind it in a blender or food processor. Place the ground zest in a heavy-duty plastic bag and keep it in the freezer, where it will stay fresh for up to a year.